logo_pbf_sABOUT US 
                NADES TEAM


NADES Design Team is a pioneer in innovative solutions for development, production and application of NADES.


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NADES offers innovative solutions for NADES production and application development



NADES team


Prof. IVANA RADOJČIĆ REDOVNIKOVIĆ

  • management and the continuous improvement and development of NADES production and application

Asst. prof. MARINA CVJETKO BUBALO

  • NADES production, and development of biocatalytic process

Asst. prof. KRISTINA RADOŠEVIĆ

  • determination of NADES toxicological profile and biological activity of NADES related products

MANUELA PANIĆ, MScEng

  • NADES preparation and characterization, and development of processes on industrial scale

Gained knowledge and experience in this field encourage us to advise and offer NADES service, which provides all in one preparation and characterization of NADES. Also, we offer support for the development of eco-friendly technologies using NADES. Together with customers we can jointly develop completely new products and help them to bring it to market, using our NADES and profound know-how.







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                CONCEPT


Designing new, environmentally-friendly, and tuneable solvents have been dramatically expanding in popularity in order to overcome the flaws of organic solvents from technological, environmental and economic aspects.


NATURAL DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS (NADES), as a new generation of novel alternative solvents, fully meet GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES principles.

Structurally, NADES are mixture of at least two natural, inexpensive, non-toxic and easily available metabolites (e.g. choline chloride, amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and alcohols) which are able to self-associate to form a new eutectic phase characterized by a melting point (below 100°C) lower than that of each individual component.


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF NADES ARE FOLLOWING:


  • The cost of NADES is comparable or even lower than conventional solvent
  • Sustainable production with 100% atom economy production
  • Chemical and thermal stability
  • Non-volatility and non-flammability
  • Low toxicity and biodegradability
  • It is possible to fine-tune physicochemical characteristics for the specific purpose
  • NADES itself could have biological activity which can be also fine-tuned
  • A wide polar range with high degree of solubilisation of both polar and non-polar compounds

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The NADES physicochemical properties are a function of their composition, what makes them HIGHLY VERSATILE and EASILY TUNEABLE SOLVENTS, meaning that by changing forming compounds and their molar ratios is possible to design an optimal NADES for certain application.


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NADES 
APPLICATION


The choice of a solvent in certain process not only depends on its chemical, and physical properties, but also on its environmental impact (e.g. ecotoxicity and biodegradability), sustainability (possibility of recycle and reuse) and process safety (e.g. flammability and volatility). Therefore, interest for potential application of NADESs as solvents and/or supporting medium in different processes has increased significantly, due to their UNIQUE PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, and LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT.


One of the major attractions of making NADES an alternative to conventional organic solvents lies in the fact that the number of structural combinations encompassed by these solvents is tremendous, thus it is POSSIBLE TO DESIGN AN OPTIMAL ONE for each specific application.


SINCE THE NUMBER OF POSSIBLE CHEMICAL
STRUCTURES OF THESE SOLVENTS IS VAST
NADES ARE VERY INTERESTING FOR USE IN:


  • SYNTHETIC CHEMISTRY
  • ORGANOMETALLICS
  • ANALYTICS
  • ELECTROCHEMISTRY
  • NANOMATERIALS
  • BIOMEDICINE
  • (BIO)CATALYSIS
  • SEPARATION and ISOLATION of VARIOUS COMPOUNDS.


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LIST OF NADES 
                PRODUCTS

ChCit Choline chloride:citric acid
ChEG Choline chloride:ethylene glycol
ChFru Choline chloride:fructose
ChGlc Choline chloride:glucose
ChGly Choline chloride:glycerol
ChMa Choline chloride:malic acid
ChMal Choline chloride:maltose
ChOx Choline chloride:oxalic acid
ChProMa Choline chloride:proline:malic acid
ChScu Choline chloride:sucrose
ChSol Choline chloride:sorbose
ChSor Choline chloride:sorbitol
ChU Choline chloride:urea
ChUEG Choline chloride:urea:ethylene glycol
ChUGly Choline chloride:urea:glycerol
ChXyl Choline chloride:xylose
ChXyol Choline chloride:xylitol
MaFruGly Malic acid:fructose:glycerol
MaGlc Malic acid:glucose
MaGlcGly Malic acid:glucose:glycerol
MaScu Malic acid:sucrose
MaSorGly Malic acid:sorbose:glycerol
ProMa Proline:malic acid
BCit Betaine:citric acid
BMa Betaine:malic acid
BMaGlc Betaine:malic acid:glucose
BMaPro Betaine:malic acid: proline
ChCit Choline chloride:citric acid
ChMa Choline chloride:malic acid
ChMal Choline chloride:maltose
ChProMa Choline chloride:proline:malic acid
CitFru Citric acid:fructose
CitFruGly Citric acid:fructose:glycerol
CitGlc Citric acid:glucose
CitGlcGly Citric acid:glucose:glycerol
CitScu Citric acid:sacharose
BGly Betaine:glycerol
BOaGly Betaine:oxalic acid:glycerol
BScu Betaine:sucrose
FruEG Fructose:ethylene glycol
GlcEG Glucose:ethylene glycol
GlcFru Glucose:Fructose
GlyGlc Glycerol:glucose
GlySol Glycerol:sorbitol
MaFru Malic acid:fructose
ScuEG Sucrose:ethylene glycol
SolEG Sorbitol:ethylene glycol
XylEG Xylose:ethylene glycol
BMaGlc Betaine:malic acid:glucose
BMaPro Betaine:malic acid:proline
BOaGly Betaine:oxalic acid:glycerol
ChUEG Cholinechloride:urea:ethylene glycol
ChUGly Cholinechloride:urea:glycerol
CitFruGly Citric acid:fructose:glycerol
CitGlcGly Citric acid:glucose:glycerol
FruGlcU Fructose:glucose:urea
GlcFruEG Glucose:fructose:ethylene glycol
MaFruGly Malic acid:fructose:glycerol
MaGlcGly Malic acid:glucose:glycerol
MaSorGly Malic acid:sorbose:glycerol
ProFruGly Proline:fructose:glycerol
ProGlcGly Proline:glucose:glycerol
ScuGlcFru Sucrose:glucose:fructose
ScuGlcU Sucrose:glucose:urea

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Choline chloride based NADES

ChCit Choline chloride:citric acid
ChEG Choline chloride:ethylene glycol
ChFru Choline chloride:fructose
ChGlc Choline chloride:glucose
ChGly Choline chloride:glycerol
ChMa Choline chloride:malic acid
ChMal Choline chloride:maltose
ChOx Choline chloride:oxalic acid
ChProMa Choline chloride:proline:malic acid
ChScu Choline chloride:sucrose
ChSol Choline chloride:sorbose
ChSor Choline chloride:sorbitol
ChU Choline chloride:urea
ChUEG Choline chloride:urea:ethylene glycol
ChUGly Choline chloride:urea:glycerol
ChXyl Choline chloride:xylose
ChXyol Choline chloride:xylitol

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NADES containing organic acid

MaFruGly Malic acid:fructose:glycerol
MaGlc Malic acid:glucose
MaGlcGly Malic acid:glucose:glycerol
MaScu Malic acid:sucrose
MaSorGly Malic acid:sorbose:glycerol
ProMa Proline:malic acid
BCit Betaine:citric acid
BMa Betaine:malic acid
BMaGlc Betaine:malic acid:glucose
BMaPro Betaine:malic acid: proline
ChCit Choline chloride:citric acid
ChMa Choline chloride:malic acid
ChMal Choline chloride:maltose
ChProMa Choline chloride:proline:malic acid
CitFru Citric acid:fructose
CitFruGly Citric acid:fructose:glycerol
CitGlc Citric acid:glucose
CitGlcGly Citric acid:glucose:glycerol
CitScu Citric acid:sacharose

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Choline chloride free NADES

BGly Betaine:glycerol
BOaGly Betaine:oxalic acid:glycerol
BScu Betaine:sucrose
FruEG Fructose:ethylene glycol
GlcEG Glucose:ethylene glycol
GlcFru Glucose:Fructose
GlyGlc Glycerol:glucose
GlySol Glycerol:sorbitol
MaFru Malic acid:fructose
ScuEG Sucrose:ethylene glycol
SolEG Sorbitol:ethylene glycol
XylEG Xylose:ethylene glycol

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Three components NADES

BMaGlc Betaine:malic acid:glucose
BMaPro Betaine:malic acid:proline
BOaGly Betaine:oxalic acid:
glycerol
ChUEG Cholinechloride:urea:
ethylene glycol
ChUGly Cholinechloride:urea:
glycerol
CitFruGly Citric acid:fructose:
glycerol
CitGlcGly Citric acid:glucose:
glycerol
FruGlcU Fructose:glucose:urea
GlcFruEG Glucose:fructose:
ethylene glycol
MaFruGly Malic acid:fructose:
glycerol
MaGlcGly Malic acid:glucose:
glycerol
MaSorGly Malic acid:sorbose:
glycerol
ProFruGly Proline:fructose:
glycerol
ProGlcGly Proline:glucose:
glycerol
ScuGlcFru Sucrose:glucose:
fructose
ScuGlcU Sucrose:glucose:urea




Production and   characterization
Production and
characterization
Based on our long-time experience we offer our customers to choose their proper NADES within our large data-base or we can design ideal NADES, custom-made for desired application with respect to price and availability.
  • More than 50 fully characterized NADES in our database
  • Standard or custom-made NADES for specific applications
  • Expertise in NADES application in food technology, biotechnology and chemical technology
  • Development of completely new products to satisfy market need
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Since NADES are DESIGNER SOLVENTS, it is possible to prepare a specific one for particular purpose, however, sometimes is difficult to predict which mixtures and in which molar ratios will originate as a NADES and also which solvent properties crucial will be exerted. Therefore, the composition of NADES and their physical, thermal, chemical or biological properties should be characterized on case by case scenario i.e. can be customer-made.

With our analytical equipment, which is specifically designed for the analysis of NADES, we are able to determine a variety of physicochemical parameters of NADES including water content, viscosity, polarity, pH values, conductivity as well as ecotoxicology. Furthermore, we have the ability to determine very specific parameters via our broad cooperation network.

Based on our long-time experience we offer our customers to choose their proper NADES within our large data-base or we can design ideal NADES, custom-made for desired application with respect to price and availability.
  • More than 50 fully characterized NADES in our database
  • Standard or custom-made NADES for specific applications
  • Expertise in NADES application in food technology, biotechnology and chemical technology
  • Development of completely new products to satisfy market need
bottle_01
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Since NADES are DESIGNER SOLVENTS, it is possible to prepare a specific one for particular purpose, however, sometimes is difficult to predict which mixtures and in which molar ratios will originate as a NADES and also which solvent properties crucial will be exerted. Therefore, the composition of NADES and their physical, thermal, chemical or biological properties should be characterized on case by case scenario i.e. can be customer-made.

With our analytical equipment, which is specifically designed for the analysis of NADES, we are able to determine a variety of physicochemical parameters of NADES including water content, viscosity, polarity, pH values, conductivity as well as ecotoxicology. Furthermore, we have the ability to determine very specific parameters via our broad cooperation network.





Development of eco-friendly methods by using NADES

NADESign enables the implementation of innovative technologies which emerged from the combination of NADES, application expertise and technical realization. We offer our customers the opportunity to jointly develop completely new products and bring them to the market, using NADES and profound know-how.


In order to design efficient method by using NADES, further step should be included:

  1. Preparation and characterization of NADES
    • Physicochemical characterization (density, viscosity, polarity, pH)
    • Evaluation of environmental impact (cytotoxicity and biodegradability assessment of NADES)
  2. NADES selection
    • Process efficiency
    • NADES characteristics
    • Solvent price
    • Stability of process
  3. Optimization of methods
    • Using innovative technology (e.g. lower power consumption)
  4. NADES recovery
    • Solid phase extraction
    • Evaporation of target compounds
    • Application of anti-solvents
    • Recrystallization
    • Adsorption chromatography
  5. Scale-up
    • Life Cycle Assessment

Natural Bioactive Compounds Extraction

Possibility to use NADES as an extraction solvent for various metabolites, DNA, PROTEINS, CELLULOSE, LIGNIN and many other natural compounds has been demonstrated. Solubility for some of those molecules increased for several orders of magnitude in NADES when compared to organic solvents, what proves that extraction of natural molecules with NADES has lot of potential. Higher solubility in these solvents is explained by the formation of hydrogen bonds between compounds of interest and solvent components.


Main benefits of application of as a solvent for extraction of natural compounds are:

  • NADES are highly selective and could extract both polar and nonpolar compounds
  • NADES probably occur in living cells and are involved in the biosynthesis, solubilisation and storage of various metabolites
  • Stability of target compounds in NADES is better than in conventional solvents
  • Extracts made with NADES could be directly used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetical and agrochemical applications without the need for expensive downstream purification steps

Life sciences

We are taught that all biochemical processes in cells take place in water or in lipid. But the fact is that many compounds found in cells are neither water soluble nor lipid soluble. That lead to a hypothesis that there might be a third medium in cells. It has been proposed that this alternative medium could be composed of solids which in certain molar ratios become a liquid (NADES). Based on that, importance of NADES in the THERAPEUTIC, BIOTECHNOLOGICAL and MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY areas is forecasted.


Main benefits of application of NADES in life sciences are:

  • improved solvation, absorption and bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or biologically active compounds from natural sources
  • stabilization and preservation of biomolecules, but also whole cells, tissues, and biological samples (from cryopreservation to fixation of cells for different molecular analytic methods)
  • possible synthesis of biodegradable polyesters (biodegradable pharmaceutical materials for use in biomedicine and/or tissue engineering)

BioCatalysis

Biocatalytic reactions are traditionally carried out in various solvents to bring reactants and (bio)catalysts together to deliver mass, heat, and momentum, whrebythese solvents areaccountable for a large part of generated waste and pollutionIn (bio)catalytic processes NADES can serve as SOLVENT/CO-SOLVENT, as EXTRACTIVE REAGENT for an enzymatic product and PRETREATMENT SOLVENT of enzymatic biomass.


The unique properties NADES makes them almost ideal solvents for reactions catalyzed by isolated enzymes or whole-cells through:

  • improved substrate/product solubility
  • enhanced enzyme activity and stability
  • enhanced reaction yield
  • possibility to tailor reaction enantioselectivity and regioselectivity
  • possibility of NADES recycle and reuse

Development of eco-friendly methods by using NADES

NADESign enables the implementation of innovative technologies which emerged from the combination of NADES, application expertise and technical realization. We offer our customers the opportunity to jointly develop completely new products and bring them to the market, using NADES and profound know-how.


In order to design efficient method by using NADES, further step should be included:

  1. Preparation and characterization of NADES
    • Physicochemical characterization (density, viscosity, polarity, pH)
    • Evaluation of environmental impact (cytotoxicity and biodegradability assessment of NADES)
  2. NADES selection
    • Process efficiency
    • NADES characteristics
    • Solvent price
    • Stability of process
  3. Optimization of methods
    • Using innovative technology (e.g. lower power consumption)
  4. NADES recovery
    • Solid phase extraction
    • Evaporation of target compounds
    • Application of anti-solvents
    • Recrystallization
    • Adsorption chromatography
  5. Scale-up
    • Life Cycle Assessment

Natural Bioactive Compounds Extraction

Possibility to use NADES as an extraction solvent for various metabolites, DNA, PROTEINS, CELLULOSE, LIGNIN and many other natural compounds has been demonstrated. Solubility for some of those molecules increased for several orders of magnitude in NADES when compared to organic solvents, what proves that extraction of natural molecules with NADES has lot of potential. Higher solubility in these solvents is explained by the formation of hydrogen bonds between compounds of interest and solvent components.


Main benefits of application of as a solvent for extraction of natural compounds are:

  • NADES are highly selective and could extract both polar and nonpolar compounds
  • NADES probably occur in living cells and are involved in the biosynthesis, solubilisation and storage of various metabolites
  • Stability of target compounds in NADES is better than in conventional solvents
  • Extracts made with NADES could be directly used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetical and agrochemical applications without the need for expensive downstream purification steps

Life sciences

We are taught that all biochemical processes in cells take place in water or in lipid. But the fact is that many compounds found in cells are neither water soluble nor lipid soluble. That lead to a hypothesis that there might be a third medium in cells. It has been proposed that this alternative medium could be composed of solids which in certain molar ratios become a liquid (NADES). Based on that, importance of NADES in the THERAPEUTIC, BIOTECHNOLOGICAL and MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY areas is forecasted.


Main benefits of application of NADES in life sciences are:

  • improved solvation, absorption and bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or biologically active compounds from natural sources
  • stabilization and preservation of biomolecules, but also whole cells, tissues, and biological samples (from cryopreservation to fixation of cells for different molecular analytic methods)
  • possible synthesis of biodegradable polyesters (biodegradable pharmaceutical materials for use in biomedicine and/or tissue engineering)

BioCatalysis

Biocatalytic reactions are traditionally carried out in various solvents to bring reactants and (bio)catalysts together to deliver mass, heat, and momentum, whrebythese solvents areaccountable for a large part of generated waste and pollutionIn (bio)catalytic processes NADES can serve as SOLVENT/CO-SOLVENT, as EXTRACTIVE REAGENT for an enzymatic product and PRETREATMENT SOLVENT of enzymatic biomass.


The unique properties NADES makes them almost ideal solvents for reactions catalyzed by isolated enzymes or whole-cells through:

  • improved substrate/product solubility
  • enhanced enzyme activity and stability
  • enhanced reaction yield
  • possibility to tailor reaction enantioselectivity and regioselectivity
  • possibility of NADES recycle and reuse




STAY IN TOUCH
WITH NADES TEAM


CONTACT INFORMATION

Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb
nades-design@pbf.hr
+385 1 460 5015

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